A comprehensive supplement guide for magnesium | Referenced
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Supplement guide to magnesium banner

Supplement guide for magnesium

Supplement guide for magnesium

In this supplement guide for magnesium I discuss how much magnesium should you take? Which type of magnesium supplement you should take? What conditions magnesium can help?

Daily Reference Intake (DRI)

Food and Nutrition Board recommendation

Food and Nutrition Board recommendation: 350mg for males and 265mg for females.

Considering that a lot of food is fortified with calcium and women are constantly being told to take more calcium. This recommended figure of 265mg is tragically low. Remember women you are far more likely to be deficient in magnesium, vitamin D and iron than you are to be deficient in calcium.

Reference DRI Values Summary Table. Note they do not seem to have updated their magnesium levels since 1997.

My personal recommendation

My personal recommendation: If you are low on magnesium and you need to supplement you may want to take anything up to 700mg Magnesium per day.

What is vitally important to remember, it is not so much the dosage that is important, but the ratio between calcium. There must be a ratio of approximately 1:1 calcium to magnesium. Calcium is more readily available in our diets and so there tends to be higher levels in our bodies. Supplementation of magnesium can therefore be important and sometimes necessary.

Magnesium levels in the blood

Testing magnesium in the blood is very difficult and does not provide an accurate picture of whether you are deficient or not. Over 90% of your body’s magnesium is inside your cells and not in the blood.

This is the typical value that is currently used as a marker in blood tests today – 1.7 to 2.2 mg/dL. +/- 0.2mg on either end depending on laboratory.

Supplement guide for magnesium

If a magnesium supplement is not is this proceeding list it is because I have found little to no references on it or the supplement form is extremely rare. This list is designed to help you pick the right magnesium supplement.

Magnesium salts

Magnesium salts or magnesium minerals are naturally found in nature and are amongst the purest forms of magnesium. They are also termed inorganic, although not strictly in the sense we name our food organic.

Inorganic basically means the minerals/salts have come from rock and/or water forms in nature rather than living plant forms. Be careful when entering this debate – it is nothing to do with the terminology used in our food system today. Read more hear at this article; organic v inorganic.

Magnesium Oxide

Also known as magnesia. Of the different types, Magnesium Oxide is the least well absorb considering it has a high ratio of magnesium present in the supplement. It also probably has the highest laxative affect compared to the other types, so for those who are somewhat constipated this could be a good supplement form (solving two issues at once).

It is relatively cheap. For the normal person it is not the best option.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

Supplement Magnesium Oxide

Purchasing via this link gives you a discount

Magnesium Chloride

Magnesium and chloride.

Of this group, magnesium chloride is the most bioavailable, meaning it has the highest absorption rate even though the level of magnesium within the supplement is comparatively low. It occurs naturally in sea water. The purest form comes from an under ground sea called the Zchstein Sea. Magnesium Chloride competes at the level of magnesium chelates, but as a supplement it is often cheaper.

In a paper by S. Norman they found that magnesium chloride helped kidney function after acute renal failure episodes [10]. I believe this is where the consensus that magnesium can help kidney function comes from.

In another paper by Farooq & Rabah, they found that magnesium chloride can help with ventricular fibrillation [11]. Further, a paper by Bashir. Y et al found that magnesium lowered blood pressure, reduced frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and helped in vasodilation [12]. Yet another paper on reducing ventricular arrhythmias after surgery – check the reference [13].

As a supplement magnesium chloride is reportedly very good at detoxing the cells and increasing our BMR (basal metabolic rate).

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

supplement guide for magnesium chloride

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Magnesium Carbonate

Magnesium Carbonate actually breaks down into magnesium chloride when it hits the stomach. The hydrochloric acid in our stomach reacts with this carbonate producing carbonic acid. This eventually becomes carbon dioxide and water (alkaline by nature), which is essentially the affect of all antacids. So this supplement may help aiding in acid reflux.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

supplement guide for magnesium carbonate

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Magnesium Sulfate

Magnesium, sulfer and oxygen.

One of the main magnesium supplements used in the medical world. This is Epsom salts, yes the same epsom salts used with bathing. Although this form can come in oral format, magnesium sulphate is typically administered transdermially or via IV. Proven to help pregnant women with restless leg syndrome [17]. Proven to help migraines and headaches [4]. Does have quite strong laxative affects. This is probably the reason it is given via IV to exclude the GI tract.

Magnesium sulphate needs to be taken with caution as it does carry an overdose risk.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

supplement guide for magnesium sulphate - epsom salts

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Magnesium acids

This is when magnesium is bound to an acid to help with bioavailability. Often these acids can prove to have additional benefits. Most of these magnesium supplements have varying degrees of laxative properties. If you want to avoid laxative issues then get a chelated magnesium form or topical creams.

Magnesium Citrate

Magnesium and citric acid.

Citric acid is the acid found in lemons.

One of the better options for magnesium. It is the most common form of oral supplement. Cheap and has good solid absorption abilities, absorbing quickly. Does have laxative affects. Good alternative for taking just before bed.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

Magnesium Citrate

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Magnesium L-Aspartate

Magnesium and aspartic acid.

Seems to be good for chronic fatigue patients. Aspartic acid is very useful component in the krebs cycle. Magnesium was also found to help with manic depression, depression and bipolar [27]. It was found to match the affects of lithium, which is the conventional form of treatment for bipolar.

A paper showed it helped or participated in the lowering of blood pressure [14]. Magnesium malate is also excellent for fatigue issues.

There are reports that aspartic acid when not bound to an amino acid can become a neurotoxin. Use with caution.

I can not recommend a product at time of writing.

Magnesium Orotate

Magnesium and orotic acid.

Orotic acid has been shown to help free up the binding sites of magnesium, thus creating a much better absorption. It is known to be a magnesium fixing agent [23]. It has the ability to take magnesium into the cells [25]. Little to no laxative affects. Reportedly one of the best supplement forms of magnesium. Has been said to help heart disease and heart failure as well as angina [24][26]. Most magnesium products will help with these conditions – see magnesium chloride tab.

This is quite a rare form a magnesium supplement to find, plus it is very expensive.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

Magnesium Orotate

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Magnesium Malate

Magnesium and Malic acid.

Malic acid is naturally found in fruits and is hugely important in the krebs cycle for ATP production.

This form of magnesium is fantastic for fatigue issues. High absorption rate. Has been used to treat fibromyalgia. It has also been shown to reduce tender points in the muscles of fibromyalgia patients [8]. Recommended dosage of magnesium 300-600mg and malic acid 1200-2400mg.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

supplement guide for magnesium malate

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Magnesium L-Threonate

Magnesium and L-Threonic Acid.

A China study in 2013 proved it helped with short term memory lose of patients that had chronic pain issues [1].

Another study from China in 2011 found magnesium L-Threonate helped enhance synaptic plasticity (ability for quality or efficient nerve impulses) in regards to memory and learning [2]. Their aim was to use magnesium supplements alongside cognitive therapies to help treat anxiety and PTSD. These same authors conducted another study in 2013 and concluded that magnesium can help with fear and once again, learning [3]. Yet another study proved the effectiveness of short term and long term memory with the use of magnesium L-Threonate [9].

The supplement name is Magtein and both names seem to be intertwined on a regular basis. So watch out for either name on the supplement bottle. This form of supplement is quite expensive in comparison to other magnesium supplements.

Since these two studies are relatively new, a lot of talk and hype has emerged regarding this form of magnesium. I have read on various blogs that it is the only magnesium supplement that crosses into the brain. This is not true – all magnesium supplements cross over to the brain. However the evidence does support this supplement is particularly good with helping and improving memory and learning.

The L-threonate component of this supplement is also worth noting. It is actually a metabolic component of vitamin C – L-threonic acid. Two studies have been done showing this metabolite increases the amount of vitamin C uptake by T-cells (cells that fight pathogens and invaders) [5][7]. The second study showed L-threonic acid increased the potency of vitamin C [6][7].

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

supplement guide for magnesium L-Threonate - Magtein

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Magnesium Chelates

Chelated magnesium or magnesium amino acid chelates are the binding of magnesium to certain amino acids. The advantage of this form of supplementation is you have magnesium and an additional amino acid when ingested. For some people having this extra supply of amino acid can be hugely beneficial. In addition chelated magnesium do not cause loose stools because they are absorbed into the cell.

Generally speaking magnesium chelates are the better standard for magnesium supplements. They are widely considered to have the highest absorption rate and bioavailability. However they do tend to be harder to find and also much more expensive.

Magnesium Glycinate

Magnesium and amino acid glycine.

Glycine is a non essential amino acid meaning the body can make it. However glycine is reported to have a calming affect on the body.

Probably has the highest form of absorption of all supplements. Very little laxative affect. A good long term supplement for chronic deficiency. Both magnesium and glycine have a calming affect on the body. Reportedly good for helping with muscle pain and muscle hypertonicity.

My pick for this product. Buy it here.

Supplement guide for magnesium glycinate

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Magnesium Taurate

Magnesium and amino acid taurine.

Taurine lowers elevated blood pressure, reduces atherogenesis, prevents arrhythmia, stabilises platelets, is an antivasospastic and an anticonvulsant [29][31]. Given that magnesium already performs these actions, the two together form a powerful supplement for heart and vascular health.

Together these two stabilise cells walls. Great for cardiovascular issues. No laxative affect. Good absorption. Has a calming affect on the body by reducing the sympathetic outflow, helps to reduce migraines [30]. Also reported to help with preeclampsia in pregnancy [31].

Low levels of vitamin B6 have been shown to reduce the magnesium and taurine levels.

I can not recommend a suitable supplement at time of writing.

Foods high in magnesium

Your daily intake of magnesium can be achieved through food alone. Unfortunately most people do not eat leafy greens, nuts and seeds. In addition with the soil becoming so depleted and the big produce companies spraying and modifying our food, natural magnesium levels have become low.

  • Dark chocolate (very high doses of magnesium). Some cravings for chocolate could be an indicator that you are low in magnesium and not just a simple sugar craving.
  • Leafy greens (spinach, swiss chard, kale, collards).
  • Seeds (pumpkin, squash, sesame).
  • Nuts (brazil, almonds, cashews).
  • Fish (mackerel, pollock, turbot, tuna).
  • Beans and lentils.
  • Brown rice.
  • Avocados.

Reference from HealthAliciousNess.com

A paper has shown that the presence of fructo-oligosaccharides can aid magnesium absorption by up to 25%. Fructo-oligosaccharides are a fermentable dietary fibre.

In other words it is a prebiotic that helps feed the good bacteria. This might be useful for people who are chronically deficient in magnesium.

Conditions magnesium can help

The following are potential conditions or problems you can help with magnesium supplementation. Some are backed by research. I have linked the references where this is the case. The others are based on testimonials of patients.

  • Acid reflux. This is quite common understanding. Magnesium Carbonate.
  • Ventricular fibrillation [11], ventricular arrhythmias [12][13][29] & heart health [24][25][26][29]. Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Taurate.
  • Restless leg syndrome [16][17]. Magnesium in general, magnesium sulfate.
  • Muscle energy, exercise & stiff muscles [24]. I believe this is to do with the krebs cycle and ATP production – since muscles are a major place for ATP production in would make sense to help with energy [21]. Magnesium in general, Magnesium Glycinate, Magnesium Malate (fibromyalgia success), Magnesium Aspartate, Magnesium Orotate.
  • Anxiety [2][3][28]. Magnesium L-Threonate.
  • Manic Depression, depression and bipolar [27][28]. Magnesium Aspartate.
  • Migraines, cluster headaches and headaches [4][18][20][22][30]. Magnesium general, Magnesium Sulfate, Magnesium Taurate.
  • High blood pressure [12][14][19][29]. This is because magnesium is proven to vasodilate the blood vessel walls. Magnesium general, Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Taurate.
  • AsthmaMagnesium Sulfate via IV.
  • Sleep. Glycine & Taurine have calming affects [30]. Magnesium Glycinate. Magnesium Taurate.
  • Night sweats in peri-menopause.
  • Fibromyalgia [8]. Magnesium Malate.
  • Chronic fatigueMagnesium Malate, Magnesium Aspartate.
  • Short term memorylong term memory and general brain function [1][2][3][9]. Magnesium L-Threonate.
  • Neuron health [2][25]. Magnesium L-Threonate, Magnesium Orotate.
  • Osteoporosis & general bone weaknessMagnesium general.
  • Preeclampsia in pregnancy [31]. Magnesium Taurate.
  • Muscle twitches & tremorsMagnesium Malate.
  • Improves bad moodsMagnesium Malate.
  • Aluminium toxicity.
  • Adrenal FatigueMagnesium Malate, Magnesium Taurate.
It takes up to 3 months to fully recharge and replenish your magnesium stores within your body. It is dependant on the state of your digestive tract and how well it can absorb the magnesium, how long you have been deficient and what supplement type you are taking.

Swapping around and experimenting with different types of magnesium supplements can be a good idea. Follow the dosage plan at the beginning and remember, nothing ever replaces a good food source for reaching your goals.

Drug interactions with magnesium – Cautions and contraindications

Raltegravir (an HIV drug) – magnesium can bind to this drug in the GI tract and potentially prevent its absorption. Care must be taken if the magnesium is used as an antacid.

Tetracyclines & Quinolone antibiotics. Magnesium can bind with the antibiotics and prevent their full absorption. This is not dangerous although it does mean the full dose of antibiotic may not be absorbed or processed by the body. (This applies to oral magnesium only).

Anyone who has renal insufficiency needs to use caution. This is more to do with the relationship between calcium and magnesium. I haven’t found out the reason why.

Factors that affect magnesium absorption

  • Magnesium can be lost in the body through high levels of stress. During stressful times the body tries to produce more energy (ATP) in order to handle and deal with the stress. Magnesium is used within the various chemical reactions needed to create ATP. If you are in long term stress than you will deplete your magnesium stores much quicker. After vigorous exercise you body does enter a low state of magnesium within the cells [21].
  • Medications are a big contributor to poor magnesium levels in the blood. Diuretics and/or water pills cause magnesium to be lost. Thiazides and loop diuretic
  • Alcoholism.
  • Diabetes.
  • Poor digestive health.
  • Antacids.
  • Acid blockers.
  • Contraceptives.
  • Fluoride in the water inhibits magnesium absorption.
  • Vitamin B6 levels can influence magnesium absorption if they are low.

Summary

As discussed early up to 700mg per day (total) is a fairly safe bet. If you eat a good diet of fresh organic vegetables accompanied by nuts and seeds then you may not need to supplement. If you do not consume these foods every day then you may want to consider supplementing up to 500/600mg per day.

Magnesium is known to have a natural laxative affect. If this is truly something that does bother you and you start to get diarrhoea then there are magnesium oils and creams which avoid the digestive system solving this issue. Magnesium chelates also solve this issue.

For others, magnesium can create a calming/sleepy affect just before bed, helping you get to sleep easier. Equally for others it can keep people awake. Personal discretion is advised at this point – trial and error to see what works best for you is necessary.

Typically magnesium is advised to take just before bed (give or take an hour). Again this is not an exact science and personal preference plays its part.

Daily dose of 400-600mg. Take 200mg in the morning and 300/400mg just before bed.

If you get diarrhoea stop and use a cream instead. If it affects your sleep take the magnesium before your meal in the evening.

REFERENCES ( tap to open)

[1] Wang, J et al. (2013). Magnesium L-threonate Prevents and Restores Memory Deficits Associated with Neuropathic Pain by Inhibition of TNF-α. Pain Physical Journal. 16:E563-E575. ISSN 2150-1149. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Xianguo_Liu/publication/257205250_Magnesium_L-threonate_Prevents_and_Restores_Memory_Deficits_Associated_with_Neuropathic_Pain_by_Inhibition_of_TNF-/links/00b7d5354eda966293000000.pdf [assessed Nov 2015].

[2] Abumaria, N et al (2011). Effects of Elevation of Brain Magnesium on Fear Conditioning, Fear Extinction, and Synaptic Plasticity in the Infralimbic Prefrontal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala. The Journal of Neuroscience. [online] 31(42). p. 14871-14881. DOI 10.1523. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/31/42/14871.short [assessed Nov 2015].

[3] Abumaria, N et al. (2013). Magnesium supplement enhances spatial-context pattern separation and prevents fear overgeneralisation. Behavioural Pharmacology. [Online]. 24(4). http://journals.lww.com/behaviouralpharm/Abstract/2013/08000/Magnesium_supplement_enhances_spatial_context.3.aspx. [assessed Nov 2015].

[4] Bigal, ME et al. (2002). Intravenous Magnesium Sulphate in the Acute Treatment of Migraine Without Aura and Migraine with Aura. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Cephalalgia Journal. [Online]. 22(5). p. 345-353. http://cep.sagepub.com/content/22/5/345.short. [assessed Nov 2015].

[5] Currently reference could not be found. See [7] for original article. References were requested.

[6] Currently reference could not be found. See [7] for original article. References were requested.

[7] Immune support.com – http://www.immunesupport.com/news/94spr002.htm

[8] Guy E Abraham & Jorge D Flechas. (1992). Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid. Journal of Nutritional Medicine. [Online]. 3(1). p. 49-59. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13590849208997961. [Assessed Dec 2015].

[9] Slutsky I et al. (2010). Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. [Online] 65(2). p.165-77. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0896627309010447. [assessed Dec 2015].

[10] Norman. S et al. (1980). Enhanced recovery from acute renal failure by the postischemic infusion of adenine nucleotides and magnesium chloride in rats. Laboratory Investigation. [Online]. 17. p. 338-349. http://www.nature.com/ki/journal/v17/n3/abs/ki198039a.html. [assessed Dec 2015].

[11] Farooq. M & Rabah. M. (1977). Effect of magnesium chloride on electrical stability of the heart. American Heart Journal. [Online]. 94(5). p600-602. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002870377801294. [assessed Dec 2015].

[12] Bashir. Y et al. (1993). Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. The American Journal of Cardiology. [Online]. 72(15). p. 1156-1162. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000291499390986M. [assessed Dec 2015].

[13] Colquhoun. IW et al. (1993). Arrhythmia prophylaxis after coronary artery surgery. A randomised controlled trial of intravenous magnesium chloride. European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery. [Online]. 7(10). p. 520-523. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8267992. [assessed Dec 2015].

[14] Dyckner. T & Wester. PO. (1983). Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. The BMJ. [Online]. 286:1847. http://www.bmj.com/content/286/6381/1847.short. [assessed Dec 2015].

[15] Bohn & Torsten. [2008]. Dietary Factors Influencing Magnesium Absorption in Humans. Current Nutrition & Food Science. [Online]. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cnf/2008/00000004/00000001/art00006. [assessed Dec 2015].

[16] Hornyak. M et al. (1998). Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Europe Pubmed Central. [Online]. 21(5). p. 501-505. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/9703590. [assessed Dec 2015].

[17]. Zallek. S & Bartel. S. (2006). Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate May Relieve Restless Legs Syndrome in Pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. [Online]. 2(2). p 187-188. http://www.aasmnet.org/JCSM/Articles/020213.pdf. [assessed Dec 2015].

[18] Boska. MD et al. (2002). Contrasts in cortical magnesium, phospholipid and energy metabolism between migraine syndromes. Neurology. [Online]. 58(8). p. 1227-1233. http://www.neurology.org/content/58/8/1227.short. [assessed Dec 2015].

[19] Ascherio. A et al. (1992). A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US men. Circulation. [Online]. 86. p. 1465-1484. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/86/5/1475.short. [assessed Dec 2015].

[20] Raffaele. L et al. (2001). Deficient energy metabolism is associated with low free magnesium in the brains of patients with migraine and cluster headache. Brain Research Bulletin. [Online]. 54(4). p. 437-441. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0361923001004403. [assessed Dec 2015].

[21] Rayssiguier. Y et al. (1990). New experimental and clinical data on the relationship between magnesium and sport. Europe PubMed Central. [Online]. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/2133629. [assessed Dec 2015].

[22] Welch K, Nabih R. (1995). Mitochondria, magnesium and migraine. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. [Online]. 134(1-2). p. 9-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022510X95001961. [assessed Dec 2015].

[23] Classen. HG. (2004). Magnesium orotate–experimental and clinical evidence. Europe PubMed Central. [Online] 42(3). p. 491-501. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/16366126. [assessed Dec 2015].

[24] Geiss. K et al. (1998). Effects of Magnesium Orotate on Exercise Tolerance in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. [Online]. 12(2). p. 153-156. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1007796515957. [assessed dec 2015].

[25] Zeana. C. (1999). Magnesium orotate in myocardial and neural protection. Europe PubMed Central. [Online]. 37(1). p. 91-97. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15523949. [assessed Dec 2015].

[26] Stepura. O.B. & Martynow. A.I. (2009). Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). International Journal of Cardiology. [Online]. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167527309001004. [assessed Dec 2015].

[27] Chouinard. G. A pilot study of magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard®) as a mood stabilizer for rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder patients. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online]. 14(2). p. 171-180. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0278584690900993. [assessed Dec 2015].

[28] George A. E & Karen L. E. (2006). Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Medical Hypotheses. [Online]. 67(2). p. 362-370. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987706001034. [assessed Dec 2015].

[29] McCarty. M.F. (1996). Complementary vascular-protective actions of magnesium and taurine: A rationale for magnesium taurate. Medial Hypothesis. [Online]. 46(2). p. 89-100. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987796900079. [assessed Dec 2015].

[30] McCarty. M.F. (1996). Magnesium taurate and fish oil for prevention of migraine. Medial Hypothesis. [Online]. 47(6). p. 461-466. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987796901589. [assessed Dec 2015].

[31] McCarty. M.F. (1996). Magnesium taurate for the prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Medial Hypothesis. [Online]. 47(4). p. 269-272. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987796900651. [assessed Dec 2015].

Dr. Carolyn Dean. The Magnesium Miracle. New York: Ballantine Books; 2007.

Ancient Minerals – Magnesium Supplementation.

Dr. Nibber – Understanding Different Types of Magnesium.

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